Continuity Definition: The process of maintaining the consistency of the plot, characters, time period, objects, places and events of the film in order to maintain the audience's suspension of disbelief.
Continuity Production Techniques:
180° rule: The 180° rule gives a guideline whilst making films, If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects, it is called the crossing line and would not be correct.
Match on action: A match on action is when filmed action occurring before the cut is picked up where the cut is left.
Shot reverse shot: Shot reverse shot is a film technique where in the filming one character is shown to be looking at the other character. The other character either has the back of their head to the camera or appears to be off screen.
It was important whilst doing the filming to have the correct framing to allow us to have a high superiority film; we also had to avoid zooming as the quality of the film could deteriorate.
Plot of your Prelim script:
Our script is based on a prison visit where the female character is visiting her partner. Audiences aren't a wear of the purposes of the visit until the end. The setting is a large lit room with one desk and the two charactres sitting oppostie eachother. As the filming begins we are a wear there is a tense tone and conflict has occurred/will occur. It is important to have a plot for the script as it sets the scene so then all the cast know what they are doing, how to act and how to film.
Shot List: Storyboard:
Location Recce:Risk assessment:
If there was a fire there are two exits out of the room, one is the main entrance and the second in the far left hand corner.
There are two tables and somebody may bump into them causing themselves injury, to avoid this all of the crew need to be warned about the hazard.
When the radiators are on they could burn somebody if you touch them, to avoid this radiators need to be on the lowest setting possible. If the risk increases the radiators need to be switched off completely.
The chairs could be tripped over if they are not tucked away properly; all chairs need to be moved out of the way once they have been used.
Power supplies could be a risk if they are left on and touched. All power supplies need to be noted and all the back stage crew and actors need to have a wear of where they are.
We need a risk assessment so that we can see what risks there are during the filming and how we can avoid any injuries.
Mise – en Scene:
In the TC block there will be natural light coming through the side windows, high key lighting and artificial light coming from the roof, we will use this as our main lighting source, there then will be no need for artificial lighting.
Two grey tables with two brown chairs sitting at opposite ends of the table. We will use this layout for our props to make it more realistic.
DAVE= Grey loose tracksuit bottoms with a white tank top.
KATE= Green loose tracksuit bottoms black tight strapless top with black school shoes and grey socks. With these costumes it fits the theme of the characters and more authentic.
Hair and make up:
DAVE= Hair, N/A. Make up, black eye.
KATE= Hair, Tied up tight pony tale. Make up, heavy eye and face make up. We have given DAVE a black eye so it will show the violence in prisons and our characters personality. KATE’S hair and make up are basic and minimum to make her seem more working class.
The room is spacious and sets a good atmosphere for a prison. It has 4 windows on each side of the room with a dark carpet. There are 8 large lights on the roof which creates a lit environment.
At the start of the filming KATE walks through the wooden door and then sits at the table. DAVE is already sitting at the table and remains sitting there the whole time. During the dialogue KATE gets up and walks away, the conversation continues whilst she is walking. Once KATE has approached the door she walks out and slams it behind her, DAVE then replies and it cuts to credits. We chose this character movement as it is quite common and straight to the point.
Pros and Cons: The pros are good lighting, good access to power sockets which enables us to film easily without cables getting in shots. The room is spacious and empty allowing us to work well with the area. There are grills on the windows which can signify bars in prisons; this makes the filming more realistic.
The cons are that the room is hollow which creates a loud thud as you walk, noise also echoes as there are no props to stop sound.
Evaluation of filming:
During the preliminary coursework we used a range of filming techniques such as the basic functions of the camera including the 180 degree rule, match on action and shot reverse shot. I learnt how to edit the filming using the Adobe Premiere Pro. Whilst filming the first time we broke the 180 degree rule, this caused us to re-film our coursework and enable us to gain a better knowledge of the definitions and allow us to see them in performance. As you can see from the screen grabs below the position of KATE changes due to the camera position and breaks the relationship with the audience.
Our mise-en scene had to be altered after filming as the costume and location had to change due to us finding better facilities. Our final destination for filming was a lot better than the original, it had bars on the windows and the room was smaller this created the room to look more like a prison and have an edgy criminal feeling. The character movement in the mise-en scene remained the same the whole time and we met all the targets of continuity.
Above are examples of the range of shot sizes we used. The first frame is an example of long shot, l the second is the opposite and is called a medium close up.
Whilst doing the preliminary course work we learnt a lot of new skills and filming techniques, they included how to use a camera efficiently as well as what shot sizes there are. Throughout the filming it was important we varied the shot sizes to show we had familiarity of the range of shots, during our first filming production we failed to do this: We only showed medium close ups and medium long shots, after we re filmed the editing made the film look a much better quality and more professional. With a range of close ups and long shots you can establish the surrounding scenery as well as focusing on the characters emotions and face expressions. During the filming we had to ensure we used shot reverse shot to allow the quality of the filming to be of a better standard, when editing the film it was important to vary the shots.
Above is an example of shot reverse shot, the three screen grabs show examples of the camera moving and focusing on the two different characters throughout dialogue.
Continuity became an issue during the filming, it was apparent that our film didn’t link together causing hand movements to be different and positions of clothing and hair had altered. This made our work not look in sync and messy, after editing correctly and having to re film some parts the film came together nicely. Below is an example of continuity as KATE's hand is placed in a different position from when she sits down to when she stands up.
Rule of 3rd
The basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts. This image then allows you to identify four parts of the image that you should consider placing points of interest in as you frame your image. The lines also give you useful poisitions for elements in your photo. http://digital-photography-school.com/rule-of-thirds
Depth of field
Depth of field is the zone in which an image seen through a lens is in perfect focus. It is the distance between the nearest and furthest points that appear in the acceptably sharp photograph in a photograph. Depth of field varies with lens aperture, focal length and camera-to-subject distance. The picture below shows and example of where the writing is out focus and then the main point is made clear. http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&safe=active&q=define%3A+Depth+of+field&meta=&aq=f&oq
Three Point Lighting
Three-point lighting is a standard method used in visual media such as video, film, still photography and computer-generated imagery.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_point_lighting
The pictures below show an indication of independent study working with the light and cameras to create a mirror of the picture.